Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine disorders with a steady increase in prevalence (especially in developed countries). It is the result of a modern lifestyle and an increase in the number of external etiological factors, among which obesity is prominent.
The main reasons for the development of diabetes mellitus include:
- Overeating (increased appetite) leading to obesity is one of the main factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. If among persons with normal body weight the frequency of diabetes is 7.8%, then at excess weight by 20% the frequency of diabetes is 25%, and at excess weight by 50% the frequency is 60%.
- Autoimmune diseases (attack of the body’s immune system on its own tissues) – glomerulonephritis, autoimmune thyroiditis, hepatitis, lupus, etc. can also be complicated by diabetes mellitus.
- Hereditary factor. As a rule, diabetes mellitus is several times more common in relatives of diabetics. If both parents are ill with diabetes, the risk of diabetes for their children during their whole life is 100%, if they have odi-diabetes. n of parents – 50%, in case of diabetes in a brother or sister – 25%.
- Viral infections that destroy the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. Among the viral infections that can cause diabetes are: rubella, viral mumps, varicella, viral hepatitis, etc.
A person with a hereditary predisposition to diabetes may never become diabetic throughout his life if he controls himself by leading a healthy lifestyle: proper nutrition, physical activity, observation by a doctor, etc. As a rule, diabetes of the first type is manifested in children and adolescents.
As a result of studies, the doctors concluded that the causes of heredity of diabetes mellitus in 5% depend on the mother’s line, in 10% on the father’s line, and if both parents have diabetes, the probability of transmission of predisposition to diabetes increases up to 70%.
Signs of diabetes in women and men
There is a number of signs of diabetes mellitus, typical for both types 1 and 2 of the disease. These include:
- A feeling of insatiable thirst and frequent urination, which leads to dehydration of the body;
- Also, one of the signs is dry mouth;
- Increased fatigue;
- Yawning, drowsiness;
- Wounds and cuts heal very slowly;
- Nausea, possibly vomiting;
- Frequent breathing (possibly with acetone smell);
- Accelerated heartbeat;
- Itchy genitalia and itchy skin;
- Loss of body weight;
- Increased urinary frequency;
- Vision impairment.
If you have the above symptoms of diabetes, it is necessary to measure the blood sugar level.